Clean water is essential to human survival in all environments. This is especially true for stressed populations in post-disaster, post-war, and/or impoverished situations. Since lack of water is one of the principal causes of death among refugee populations and a reliable source of water is needed for community development, the provision of clean drinking water is a crucial task not only for emergency responders but also for development planners. Water collection, storage, treatment, and transportation analysis must be conducted.
STAR-TIDES is working to provide a useful database of information for inexpensive, sustainable infrastructure that can be supplied to emergency situations and development scenarios with minimal transportation costs. Towards this end, a Dutch non-profit organization named Akvo has created a website (www.akvo.org) that is a great resource for individuals, government officials, and NGOs seeking information on sustainable solutions to typical water (and sanitation) problems.
Akvo.org also catalogues numerous sustainable solutions to typical development problems and emergency situations in its online encyclopedia named akvopedia. In the portal for water, it exhaustively lists available technologies for:
- lifting and distribution
- storage and recharge
- treatment & testing
- use of water
All water treatment and water supply devices that are listed have a description, picture, and information on various pros and cons. There is a comparably detailed portal for sanitation.
In addition, the akvopedia site has a section labeled Organizations Portal that divides organizations interested in water/sanitation into: NGOs, government organizations, knowledge and research organizations, funding organizations and commercial companies. Each listing has a URL to follow.
Also on akvopedia is an Approaches Portal that helps walk through:
- Product/service development (how to decide if a technology or business plan is appropriate, sustainable, etc
- Service delivery approaches (community controlled vs. private enterprise, etc.)
- Promotion/Demand stimulation (use of media and market development), and
- Support systems/Enabling environment (legislation, public-private partnerships, etc.)
In sum, by going to the Akvopedia page, an individual or organization requiring water resources can:
- Customize a water program by choosing from the various options under the water portal categories to suit their individual needs.
- Identify other organizations that could might have mutual interests, and
- Get ideas about business models, financing, technical assistance, etc.
Other helpful organizations (not yet listed on the Akvo portal) are:
They focus on reducing the global burden of waterborne disease across three fields: technological development, delivery models, and impact measurement. Specifically see their work on water refill business-in-a-box that can help small businesses deliver safe water. http://www.aquaya.org
A Christian non-profit organization supporting the empowerment of communities in developing countries to gain safe water, sanitation and personal hygiene. http://www.lifewater.org
Founded by a group of passionate and globally-minded business and civic leaders and philanthropists, Safe Water Network brings together philanthropy, academia and the private and public sectors to develop, optimize, validate, and implement viable water solutions that provide safe drinking water to the world’s poor.
Global Water Challenge
“…A coalition of 24 leading organizations creating a global movement of transformational change around water and sanitation. GWC focuses on collaborative learning, connecting leaders, and investing in sustainable, scalable and replicable projects.”
An international charity organization working towards the universal provision of safe and clean drinking water.
Global Water Fund
“…a Global Water Consultancy that provides solutions to government and business with regard to the growing global water crisis. The Global Water Fund facilitates partnerships between senior government officials and the business community in order to achieve commitments and action towards vital water resources.”
The Sphere Project
When providing support to disaster victims, refugees, and other displaced populations, The Sphere Project is a good resource that offers common standards used by the international community. Water and sanitation are considered to be “critical determinants for survival” in the minimum standards of disaster response, and so meeting these needs is particularly important. TIDES highly recommends that those involved in humanitarian and relief operations become familiar with the Sphere Standards available at the above link.
Technical Considerations and planning factors common to water solutions are:
There are several variables that need to be considered before choosing an appropriate water technology. The most basic considerations that are relevant in all different environments are below:
- Fog Water Collection
- Surface Water
- Rainwater Harvesting
Lifting and Distribution
- Hand Pumps
- Powered Pumps
- Gravity Distribution
Storage and Recharge
- Storage of Harvested Rainwater
- Tank or Bladder
- Groundwater—Sand Dam
- Filter (micro, ultra, nano)
- Chemical Treatment
- Solar/UV Disinfectant
- Reverse Osmosis
- Large Scale Commercial system
Use of Water
- Pond Farming
- Upfront (Largest Model)
- Cost/liter over life of active ingredient (Largest)
- Upfront (Smallest Model)
- Cost/liter over life of active ingredient (Smallest)
EQUIPMENT PROVIDERS (BY CATEGORY)
Each link will lead you to a new page that lists shelter solutions under these broad categories. (Note: TIDES does not endorse any specific products or stores, nor are we responsible for the content on the links.)
- Individual or Household Use Filtration Projects
- Large Group Use Filtration Projects
- Chemical Applications/Projects
- Testing and Instrumentation
- Storage/Pump Products
Individual or household use filtration projects/product
Mirage Water Maker
CHB Infrastructure, Technology and Marketing Group, LLC.
ElementFour – Watermill
- David Company
Life Giving Force Family Water Products
Large group use filtration projects/products
JOSAB International AB
Global Water Group, Inc.
Mobile Power International
World Water Solutions
World Water and Solar Technologies
Trunz Water Systems
LMS World Water Treatment
Spectra Water Makers
Norcan Water Resources
Reltex APAICS Water Programme (Bacsan)
Water Development Program
North Star Devices, Inc.
Developed by Dale Andreatta
Safe Water Systems
Foundations/ Research Groups
Play Pump – for Kids
Global Water Challenge
Global Water Fund
Solar Powered Water Systems, assistance
Testing and Instrumentation
Global Water Instrumentation
Global Water Group
Innovative Water Technologies
Safe Water Systems
Source: INTRODUCTION Clean water is essential to human survival in all environments. This is especially true for stressed populations in post-disaster, post-war, and/or impoverished situations. Since lack of water is one of the principal causes of death among refugee populations and a reliable source of water is needed for community development, the provision of clean drinking water is a crucial task not only for emergency responders but also for development planners. [ 947 more words. ]